KNOWLEDGE

All kinds of press oilseeds are introduced

Oilseeds are raw materials for the preparation of fats and oils. Generally, vegetable raw materials with an oil content higher than 10% are called oilseeds. China is extremely rich in oil resources, including soybean, rapeseed, peanut, cottonseed, sesame, rice bran, camellia seed, cedar seed, and oil palm oil. The main oil materials are briefly introduced as follows.

Oil is briefly introduced as follows:

  1. Soybean

Fabaceae, Panicum. Pods contain 1-4 seeds, 5-9.8 mm in diameter, composed of embryo and seed coat. Oil and protein are almost all concentrated in the cotyledons of the embryo. Soybean seeds are oval, oblate and spherical. Soybean is the main soybean in our country, with high oil content and good quality. Soybean oilseeds contains 16%~22% oil and 40% protein. Soybeans used for oil extraction in my country account for more than 1/4 of the total output. Soybean is not only an important oil crop, but also an important protein raw material. At present, soybeans and their cakes can be used to produce a variety of protein products such as full-fat soybean flour, defatted soybean flour, soybean protein concentrate, soybean protein isolate, soybean tissue, and fibrin, which are widely used in the food industry.

  1. Rapeseed

Rapeseed oilseeds belongs to the Brassicaceae, Panicum genus. The mature seeds are mostly spherical, with a diameter of 1.27-2.05 mm. The seed coat is divided into light yellow, dark yellow, light red, reddish brown, black purple and other colors. It has a shallow net shape, and the proportion of black seeds is obvious. The main rape varieties in my country belong to the traditional high erucic acid and high mustard seed varieties (20%-55% erucic acid content in oil, 3%-8% mustard seed content). Due to the international controversy over the toxicity of erucic acid in rapeseed oil, and because the hydrolysis products (sulfides) of erucic acid make rapeseed oil irritating and toxic, hydrogenation of rapeseed oil is difficult, so double-low rapeseed (in oil The erucic acid content is less than 5%, and the erucic acid content is less than 0.1%) began to be cultivated at home and abroad in the 1970s, and was widely promoted in Europe, America and the world (currently accounts for about half of the world’s total rapeseed production).

However, in view of the special structure and properties of erucic acid, high erucic acid rapeseed oil is widely used in lubrication, waterproofing and chemical intermediates. Therefore, according to the needs of national economic development, many countries in the world, in addition to planting double-low rapeseed, also reserve an appropriate amount of high erucic acid rapeseed for industrial use.

  1. Peanuts

Peanut oilseeds is an annual leguminous herb. The unshelled fruit is a peanut, and the unshelled fruit is a peanut kernel. The peanut kernel consists of a seed coat (red skin) and an embryo. The seed coat is an embryo with two white, fatty cotyledons, rich in fat and protein. The kernel rate of peanuts is generally 68% to 72%. The oil content of peanut kernels varies from variety to variety, generally 40% to 51%. Peanut seed coat accounts for about 3% of the kernel weight, and the oil content can reach up to about 14%. Peanut kernel is one of the most important vegetable oil and vegetable protein resources. Along with soybeans, it is the most extensively studied oilseed in the world for the preparation of dietary proteins. Compared with other oils, peanut kernels have many advantages, such as mild taste, milky white color, and can be eaten after simple processing. Peanut kernels are widely used to make food at home and abroad, such as boiled peanuts, fried peanuts, fried peanuts and peanut candy.

  1. Cottonseed

Cotton oilseeds belongs to the mallow family. Cottonseed is the seed of cotton, because of its large yield, it contains 14% -25% oil. It is also an important raw material for oil production. Cottonseeds make up about 65% of cotton by weight. The proportion of husks and kernels of cottonseed varies with varieties, husks account for 40% to 55%, and kernels account for 45% to 60%. The oil content in the kernel is 30%-40%, and the oil content in the shell is only 0.3%-1%. Cottonseed contains 31%~38% protein. Cottonseed cake has been underutilized for many years due to the presence of gossypol. In recent years, researchers have done a lot of research on the detoxification and comprehensive utilization of cottonseed, and have made some progress. After solvent leaching to remove gossypol, important products such as high-quality cottonseed oil and cottonseed protein can be produced.

  1. Sunflower seeds

Sunflower oilseeds, also known as sunflower and sunrise flower, belongs to the family Asteraceae; broomcorn millet. Achenes are oval or oval, gray-brown or black, with lignified shell, and nuts rich in oil and protein. According to the use, sunflower seeds in my country are generally divided into three types: edible type, oil type and intermediate type. Type A is mainly used for direct consumption, because its shell content is 40%-60%, kernel content is 40%-60%, and oil content is 20%-30%. The oil content of the oil type is 29% -30%, and the oil content of the seeds is about 50%, which is suitable for oil production. The intermediate type is between the above two, and the yield is higher. The sunflower seed cake obtained by oil pressing contains 30%~36% protein, 8%~11% fat, and 19%~22% sugar, which can be used as feed, monosodium glutamate and soy sauce.

  1. Sesame seeds

Sesame oilseeds belongs to Sesameaceae, Panicum genus. The seeds are flat and oval in color, such as white, yellow, brownish red and black. Generally, yellow sesame and white sesame have the highest oil content, followed by brown red sesame and black sesame. a seed skin, embryo, and endosperm. Sesame oil has a special taste. Sesame contains 45% oil and 17%~27% protein. The seed coat accounts for 15% to 20% of the weight of the whole seed. It contains 2% to 3% oxalic acid, which produces calcium oxalate that gives sesame its strong bitter taste. Therefore, it is ideal to eat sesame seeds directly after peeling. Sesame is widely used to make various foods such as oil, sesame candy, stuffing, candy, and special bread.

  1. Rice bran

Rice bran is a by-product of rice production. Generally, rice with 15% to 20% oil content is brown rice after removing the husk. It consists of bran layers, germ and endosperm. Among them, the rice bran layer accounts for about 7.5% of the total weight of brown rice, and the germ accounts for about 2.5%. The rice bran layer consists of the skin, seed coat, perisperm and aleurone layer. The oil in brown rice is mainly concentrated in the aleurone layer and rice bran layer of the embryo, especially in the embryo. During rice milling, both the aleurone layer and germ can fall into the bran. Therefore, the oil content of rice bran depends on the degree of descent of the aleurone layer and germ. Generally, the weight of rice bran is 4%-6.5% of rice and 6%-8% of brown rice.

  1. Camellia seeds

Camellia oleifera, also known as camellia oleifera, is an evergreen shrub or small tree of the family Theaceae, with hairy fruits, 1-3 seeds, round back, flat belly, and a length of about 25mm. The oil content of Camellia oleifera seeds is 25% ~ 33%, and the oil content of tea kernels is 38% ~ 53%. Tea seed oil is one of the most important edible oils in southern China and the best seller in the international market. Camellia oleifera seed cake is poisonous and cannot be used as feed, but it can be used as fertilizer to kill insects and bacteria.

  1. Cypress Seeds

Cypress belongs to Euphorbiaceae, and the height of the tree is 15 meters. Leaves alternate, rhomboid to broadly rhomboid-ovate, nearly equal in length and width, 3-9mm, and seeds nearly spherical. The outer skin of the seeds has a layer of wax, which is white wax, commonly known as cypress, and contains solid cypress resin.

More than 30%, the extracted oil is called “skin oil” or “cypress wax”, which can be used to make candles and soaps, and can also be used as raw materials for the production of palmitoleic acid and oleic acid. Baiziren has yellow and white seed kernels, with an oil content of 28% -29%. Therefore, the oil extracted from the seeds from which the wax layer has been removed is called “bitumen” or “stillingia oil”, a yellow liquid oil that is used as a raw material for the production of oleic acid, paints, lubricating oils, printing inks, cosmetics, stencils, etc. Tar contains toxins and cannot be eaten. It can be used as a laxative and traditional Chinese medicine ointment. The oil is extracted from the waxy seeds called “wood oil” and is used in soaps and candles.

  1. Oil coconut

Oil is a palm tree, more than 10 meters high. Leaves clustered at the top of the neck, pinnatifid, 3-4.5m long, spherical infructome, 100-300 fruits, ovoid or obovate nuts, oily pith, bony endocarp, 3 holes at the top. Oil palm, also known as tung oil palm, is one of the important tropical oil crops. The outer layer of the oil palm is the pulp with a hard layer of palm kernel called the oil palm kernel. The oil content of palm pulp on a dry basis is 50% to 55%, and its oil is called palm tung oil.